通货膨胀的计算器

带有美国CPI数据的通货膨胀计算器

计算从1914年到2021年任何一年的美元等值。计算基于1914年至2020年美国的平均年度CPI数据。

1.18700美元

远期统一利率通货膨胀计算器

根据某一平均通货膨胀率计算通货膨胀率一些年之后

与通货膨胀率 1.34392美元

反向平率通货膨胀计算器

计算某一金额的等值购买力几年前基于一定的平均通货膨胀率。

与通货膨胀率 0.74409美元
相关的 亚搏体育数据娱乐平台|贷款计算器|投资的计算器

美国的历史通胀率(CPI)

在美国,劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)每月发布消费者价格指数(CPI),这可以转化为通货膨胀率。以下是美国(美元)的历史通货膨胀率列表,因为它是可用的。


一年 1月 2月 3月 4月 五月 小君 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月 年度
2020 2.49% 2.33% 1.54% 0.33% 0.12% 0.65% 0.99% 1.31% 1.37% 1.18% 1.17% 1.36% 1.24%
2019 1.55% 1.52% 1.86% 2.00% 1.79% 1.65% 1.81% 1.75% 1.71% 1.76% 2.05% 2.29% 1.81%
2018 2.07% 2.21% 2.36% 2.46% 2.80% 2.87% 2.95% 2.70% 2.28% 2.52% 2.18% 1.91% 2.44%
2017 2.50% 2.74% 2.38% 2.20% 1.87% 1.63% 1.73% 1.94% 2.23% 2.04% 2.20% 2.11% 2.13%
2016 1.37% 1.02% 0.85% 1.13% 1.02% 1.01% 0.84% 1.06% 1.46% 1.64% 1.69% 2.07% 1.26%
2015 -0.09% -0.03% -0.07% -0.20% -0.04% 0.12% 0.17% 0.20% -0.04% 0.17% 0.50% 0.73% 0.12%
2014 1.58% 1.13% 1.51% 1.95% 2.13% 2.07% 1.99% 1.70% 1.66% 1.66% 1.32% 0.76% 1.62%
2013 1.59% 1.98% 1.47% 1.06% 1.36% 1.75% 1.96% 1.52% 1.18% 0.96% 1.24% 1.50% 1.47%
2012 2.93% 2.87% 2.65% 2.30% 1.70% 1.66% 1.41% 1.69% 1.99% 2.16% 1.76% 1.74% 2.07%
2011 1.63% 2.11% 2.68% 3.16% 3.57% 3.56% 3.63% 3.77% 3.87% 3.53% 3.39% 2.96% 3.16%
2010 2.63% 2.14% 2.31% 2.24% 2.02% 1.05% 1.24% 1.15% 1.14% 1.17% 1.14% 1.50% 1.64%
2009 0.03% 0.24% -0.38% -0.74% -1.28% -1.43% -2.10% -1.48% -1.29% -0.18% 1.84% 2.72% -0.34%
2008 4.28% 4.03% 3.98% 3.94% 4.18% 5.02% 5.60% 5.37% 4.94% 3.66% 1.07% 0.09% 3.85%
2007 2.08% 2.42% 2.78% 2.57% 2.69% 2.69% 2.36% 1.97% 2.76% 3.54% 4.31% 4.08% 2.85%
2006 3.99% 3.60% 3.36% 3.55% 4.17% 4.32% 4.15% 3.82% 2.06% 1.31% 1.97% 2.54% 3.24%
2005 2.97% 3.01% 3.15% 3.51% 2.80% 2.53% 3.17% 3.64% 4.69% 4.35% 3.46% 3.42% 3.39%
2004 1.93% 1.69% 1.74% 2.29% 3.05% 3.27% 2.99% 2.65% 2.54% 3.19% 3.52% 3.26% 2.68%
2003 2.60% 2.98% 3.02% 2.22% 2.06% 2.11% 2.11% 2.16% 2.32% 2.04% 1.77% 1.88% 2.27%
2002 1.14% 1.14% 1.48% 1.64% 1.18% 1.07% 1.46% 1.80% 1.51% 2.03% 2.20% 2.38% 1.59%
2001 3.73% 3.53% 2.92% 3.27% 3.62% 3.25% 2.72% 2.72% 2.65% 2.13% 1.90% 1.55% 2.83%
2000 2.74% 3.22% 3.76% 3.07% 3.19% 3.73% 3.66% 3.41% 3.45% 3.45% 3.45% 3.39% 3.38%
1999 1.67% 1.61% 1.73% 2.28% 2.09% 1.96% 2.14% 2.26% 2.63% 2.56% 2.62% 2.68% 2.19%
1998 1.57% 1.44% 1.37% 1.44% 1.69% 1.68% 1.68% 1.62% 1.49% 1.49% 1.55% 1.61% 1.55%
1997 3.04% 3.03% 2.76% 2.50% 2.23% 2.30% 2.23% 2.23% 2.15% 2.08% 1.83% 1.70% 2.34%
1996 2.73% 2.65% 2.84% 2.90% 2.89% 2.75% 2.95% 2.88% 3.00% 2.99% 3.26% 3.32% 2.93%
1995 2.80% 2.86% 2.85% 3.05% 3.19% 3.04% 2.76% 2.62% 2.54% 2.81% 2.61% 2.54% 2.81%
1994 2.52% 2.52% 2.51% 2.36% 2.29% 2.49% 2.77% 2.90% 2.96% 2.61% 2.67% 2.67% 2.61%
1993 3.26% 3.25% 3.09% 3.23% 3.22% 3.00% 2.78% 2.77% 2.69% 2.75% 2.68% 2.75% 2.96%
1992 2.60% 2.82% 3.19% 3.18% 3.02% 3.09% 3.16% 3.15% 2.99% 3.20% 3.05% 2.90% 3.03%
1991 5.65% 5.31% 4.90% 4.89% 4.95% 4.70% 4.45% 3.80% 3.39% 2.92% 2.99% 3.06% 4.25%
1990 5.20% 5.26% 5.23% 4.71% 4.36% 4.67% 4.82% 5.62% 6.16% 6.29% 6.27% 6.11% 5.39%
1989 4.67% 4.83% 4.98% 5.12% 5.36% 5.17% 4.98% 4.71% 4.34% 4.49% 4.66% 4.65% 4.83%
1988 4.05% 3.94% 3.93% 3.90% 3.89% 3.96% 4.13% 4.02% 4.17% 4.25% 4.25% 4.42% 4.08%
1987 1.46% 2.10% 3.03% 3.78% 3.86% 3.65% 3.93% 4.28% 4.36% 4.53% 4.53% 4.43% 3.66%
1986 3.89% 3.11% 2.26% 1.59% 1.49% 1.77% 1.58% 1.57% 1.75% 1.47% 1.28% 1.10% 1.91%
1985 3.53% 3.52% 3.70% 3.69% 3.77% 3.76% 3.55% 3.35% 3.14% 3.23% 3.51% 3.80% 3.55%
1984 4.19% 4.60% 4.80% 4.56% 4.23% 4.22% 4.20% 4.29% 4.27% 4.26% 4.05% 3.95% 4.30%
1983 3.71% 3.49% 3.60% 3.90% 3.55% 2.58% 2.46% 2.56% 2.86% 2.85% 3.27% 3.79% 3.22%
1982 8.39% 7.62% 6.78% 6.51% 6.68% 7.06% 6.44% 5.85% 5.04% 5.14% 4.59% 3.83% 6.16%
1981 11.83% 11.41% 10.49% 10.00% 9.78% 9.55% 10.76% 10.80% 10.95% 10.14% 9.59% 8.92% 10.35%
1980 13.91% 14.18% 14.76% 14.73% 14.41% 14.38% 13.13% 12.87% 12.60% 12.77% 12.65% 12.52% 13.58%
1979 9.28% 9.86% 10.09% 10.49% 10.85% 10.89% 11.26% 11.82% 12.18% 12.07% 12.61% 13.29% 11.22%
1978 6.84% 6.43% 6.55% 6.50% 6.97% 7.41% 7.70% 7.84% 8.31% 8.93% 8.89% 9.02% 7.62%
1977 5.22% 5.91% 6.44% 6.95% 6.73% 6.87% 6.83% 6.62% 6.60% 6.39% 6.72% 6.70% 6.50%
1976 6.72% 6.29% 6.07% 6.05% 6.20% 5.97% 5.35% 5.71% 5.49% 5.46% 4.88% 4.86% 5.75%
1975 11.80% 11.23% 10.25% 10.21% 9.47% 9.39% 9.72% 8.60% 7.91% 7.44% 7.38% 6.94% 9.20%
1974 9.39% 10.02% 10.39% 10.09% 10.71% 10.86% 11.51% 10.86% 11.95% 12.06% 12.20% 12.34% 11.03%
1973 3.65% 3.87% 4.59% 5.06% 5.53% 6.00% 5.73% 7.38% 7.36% 7.80% 8.25% 8.71% 6.16%
1972 3.27% 3.51% 3.50% 3.49% 3.23% 2.71% 2.95% 2.94% 3.19% 3.42% 3.67% 3.41% 3.27%
1971 5.29% 5.00% 4.71% 4.16% 4.40% 4.64% 4.36% 4.62% 4.08% 3.81% 3.28% 3.27% 4.30%
1970 6.18% 6.15% 5.82% 6.06% 6.04% 6.01% 5.98% 5.41% 5.66% 5.63% 5.60% 5.57% 5.84%
1969 4.40% 4.68% 5.25% 5.52% 5.51% 5.48% 5.44% 5.71% 5.70% 5.67% 5.93% 6.20% 5.46%
1968 3.65% 3.95% 3.94% 3.93% 3.92% 4.20% 4.49% 4.48% 4.46% 4.75% 4.73% 4.72% 4.27%
1967 3.46% 2.81% 2.80% 2.48% 2.79% 2.78% 2.77% 2.45% 2.75% 2.43% 2.74% 3.04% 2.78%
1966 1.92% 2.56% 2.56% 2.87% 2.87% 2.53% 2.85% 3.48% 3.48% 3.79% 3.79% 3.46% 3.01%
1965 0.97% 0.97% 1.29% 1.62% 1.62% 1.94% 1.61% 1.94% 1.61% 1.93% 1.60% 1.92% 1.59%
1964 1.64% 1.64% 1.31% 1.31% 1.31% 1.31% 1.30% 0.98% 1.30% 0.97% 1.30% 0.97% 1.28%
1963 1.33% 1.00% 1.33% 0.99% 0.99% 1.32% 1.32% 1.32% 0.99% 1.32% 1.32% 1.64% 1.24%
1962 0.67% 1.01% 1.01% 1.34% 1.34% 1.34% 1.00% 1.34% 1.33% 1.33% 1.33% 1.33% 1.20%
1961 1.71% 1.36% 1.36% 1.02% 1.02% 0.68% 1.35% 1.01% 1.35% 0.67% 0.67% 0.67% 1.07%
1960 1.03% 1.73% 1.73% 1.72% 1.72% 1.72% 1.37% 1.37% 1.02% 1.36% 1.36% 1.36% 1.46%
1959 1.40% 1.05% 0.35% 0.35% 0.35% 0.69% 0.69% 1.04% 1.38% 1.73% 1.38% 1.73% 1.01%
1958 3.62% 3.25% 3.60% 3.58% 3.21% 2.85% 2.47% 2.12% 2.12% 2.12% 2.11% 1.76% 2.73%
1957 2.99% 3.36% 3.73% 3.72% 3.70% 3.31% 3.28% 3.66% 3.28% 2.91% 3.27% 2.90% 3.34%
1956 0.37% 0.37% 0.37% 0.75% 1.12% 1.87% 2.24% 1.87% 1.86% 2.23% 2.23% 2.99% 1.52%
1955 -0.74% -0.74% -0.74% -0.37% -0.74% -0.74% -0.37% -0.37% 0.37% 0.37% 0.37% 0.37% -0.28%
1954 1.13% 1.51% 1.13% 0.75% 0.75% 0.37% 0.37% 0.00% -0.37% -0.74% -0.37% -0.74% 0.32%
1953 0.38% 0.76% 1.14% 0.76% 1.14% 1.13% 0.37% 0.75% 0.75% 1.12% 0.75% 0.75% 0.82%
1952 4.33% 2.33% 1.94% 2.33% 1.93% 2.32% 3.09% 3.09% 2.30% 1.91% 1.14% 0.75% 2.29%
1951 8.09% 9.36% 9.32% 9.32% 9.28% 8.82% 7.47% 6.58% 6.97% 6.50% 6.88% 6.00% 7.88%
1950 -2.08% -1.26% -0.84% -1.26% -0.42% -0.42% 1.69% 2.10% 2.09% 3.80% 3.78% 5.93% 1.09%
1949 1.27% 1.28% 1.71% 0.42% -0.42% -0.83% -2.87% -2.86% -2.45% -2.87% -1.65% -2.07% -0.95%
1948 10.23% 9.30% 6.85% 8.68% 9.13% 9.55% 9.91% 8.89% 6.52% 6.09% 4.76% 2.99% 7.74%
1947 18.13% 18.78% 19.67% 19.02% 18.38% 17.65% 12.12% 11.39% 12.75% 10.58% 8.45% 8.84% 14.65%
1946 2.25% 1.69% 2.81% 3.37% 3.35% 3.31% 9.39% 11.60% 12.71% 14.92% 17.68% 18.13% 8.43%
1945 2.30% 2.30% 2.30% 1.71% 2.29% 2.84% 2.26% 2.26% 2.26% 2.26% 2.26% 2.25% 2.27%
1944 2.96% 2.96% 1.16% 0.57% 0.00% 0.57% 1.72% 2.31% 1.72% 1.72% 1.72% 2.30% 1.64%
1943 7.64% 6.96% 7.50% 8.07% 7.36% 7.36% 6.10% 4.85% 5.45% 4.19% 3.57% 2.96% 6.00%
1942 11.35% 12.06% 12.68% 12.59% 13.19% 10.88% 11.56% 10.74% 9.27% 9.15% 9.09% 9.03% 10.97%
1941 1.44% 0.71% 1.43% 2.14% 2.86% 4.26% 5.00% 6.43% 7.86% 9.29% 10.00% 9.93% 5.11%
1940 -0.71% 0.72% 0.72% 1.45% 1.45% 2.17% 1.45% 1.45% -0.71% 0.00% 0.00% 0.71% 0.73%
1939 -1.41% -1.42% -1.42% -2.82% -2.13% -2.13% -2.13% -2.13% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% -1.30%
1938 0.71% 0.00% -0.70% -0.70% -2.08% -2.08% -2.76% -2.76% -3.42% -4.11% -3.45% -2.78% -2.01%
1937 2.17% 2.17% 3.65% 4.38% 5.11% 4.35% 4.32% 3.57% 4.29% 4.29% 3.57% 2.86% 3.73%
1936 1.47% 0.73% 0.00% -0.72% -0.72% 0.73% 1.46% 2.19% 2.19% 2.19% 1.45% 1.45% 1.04%
1935 3.03% 3.01% 3.01% 3.76% 3.76% 2.24% 2.24% 2.24% 0.74% 1.48% 2.22% 2.99% 2.56%
1934 2.33% 4.72% 5.56% 5.56% 5.56% 5.51% 2.29% 1.52% 3.03% 2.27% 2.27% 1.52% 3.51%
1933 -9.79% -9.93% -10.00% -9.35% -8.03% -6.62% -3.68% -2.22% -1.49% -0.75% 0.00% 0.76% -5.09%
1932 -10.06% -10.19% -10.26% -10.32% -10.46% -9.93% -9.93% -10.60% -10.67% -10.74% -10.20% -10.27% -10.30%
1931 -7.02% -7.65% -7.69% -8.82% -9.47% -10.12% -9.04% -8.48% -9.64% -9.70% -10.37% -9.32% -8.94%
1930 0.00% -0.58% -0.59% 0.59% -0.59% -1.75% -4.05% -4.62% -4.05% -4.62% -5.20% -6.40% -2.66%
1929 -1.16% 0.00% -0.58% -1.17% -1.16% 0.00% 1.17% 1.17% 0.00% 0.58% 0.58% 0.58% 0.00%
1928 -1.14% -1.72% -1.16% -1.16% -1.15% -2.84% -1.16% -0.58% 0.00% -1.15% -0.58% -1.16% -1.15%
1927 -2.23% -2.79% -2.81% -3.35% -2.25% -0.56% -1.14% -1.15% -1.14% -1.14% -2.26% -2.26% -1.92%
1926 3.47% 4.07% 2.89% 4.07% 2.89% 1.14% -1.13% -1.69% -1.13% -0.56% -1.67% -1.12% 0.94%
1925 0.00% 0.00% 1.17% 1.18% 1.76% 2.94% 3.51% 4.12% 3.51% 2.91% 4.65% 3.47% 2.44%
1924 2.98% 2.38% 1.79% 0.59% 0.59% 0.00% -0.58% -0.58% -0.58% -0.58% -0.58% 0.00% 0.45%
1923 -0.59% -0.59% 0.60% 1.20% 1.20% 1.80% 2.38% 3.01% 3.61% 3.59% 2.98% 2.37% 1.80%
1922 -11.05% -8.15% -8.74% -7.73% -5.65% -5.11% -5.08% -6.21% -5.14% -4.57% -3.45% -2.31% -6.10%
1921 -1.55% -5.64% -7.11% -10.84% -14.08% -15.79% -14.90% -12.81% -12.50% -12.06% -12.12% -10.82% -10.85%
1920 16.97% 20.37% 20.12% 21.56% 21.89% 23.67% 19.54% 14.69% 12.36% 9.94% 7.03% 2.65% 15.90%
1919 17.86% 14.89% 17.14% 17.61% 16.55% 14.97% 15.23% 14.94% 13.38% 13.13% 13.50% 14.55% 15.31%
1918 19.66% 17.50% 16.67% 12.70% 13.28% 13.08% 17.97% 18.46% 18.05% 18.52% 20.74% 20.44% 17.26%
1917 12.50% 15.38% 14.29% 18.87% 19.63% 20.37% 18.52% 19.27% 19.82% 19.47% 17.39% 18.10% 17.80%
1916 2.97% 4.00% 6.06% 6.00% 5.94% 6.93% 6.93% 7.92% 9.90% 10.78% 11.65% 12.62% 7.64%
1915 1.00% 1.01% 0.00% 2.04% 2.02% 2.02% 1.00% -0.98% -0.98% 0.99% 0.98% 1.98% 0.92%
1914 2.04% 1.02% 1.02% 0.00% 2.06% 1.02% 1.01% 3.03% 2.00% 1.00% 0.99% 1.00% 1.35%

通货膨胀计算器利用美国的历史消费者价格指数(CPI)数据来转换美元在不同年份的购买力。只需输入金额和金额所对应的年份,然后输入经通货膨胀调整后的金额所对应的年份。

还有一个远期平率通货膨胀计算器和反向平率通货膨胀计算器,可以用于理论场景,以确定给定的数额,根据年数和通货膨胀率进行调整的通货膨胀调整数额。从历史上看,美国和许多其他发达国家的通胀率徘徊在3%左右,这是一个安全的假设。不过,你可以根据需要随意调整。

什么是通货膨胀?

通货膨胀被定义为商品和服务价格的普遍上涨和货币购买力的下降。通货膨胀可以是人为的,因为当局,如中央银行、国王或政府,可以控制流通中的货币供应。从理论上讲,如果经济中增加了货币,流通中的每一单位货币的价值就会减少。通货膨胀率本身通常以12个月内物价上涨的百分比表示。大多数发达国家试图通过财政和货币政策将通货膨胀率维持在2-3%左右。

恶性通货膨胀

恶性通货膨胀是迅速侵蚀货币实际价值的过度通货膨胀。它通常发生在货币供应大幅增加,而国内生产总值(gdp)几乎没有变化的时候。恶性通货膨胀的例子可以在20世纪90年代初的乌克兰和1980年至1994年的巴西看到,这些国家经历了长期的恶性通货膨胀,其货币变得毫无价值。这些过度膨胀的经济给他们的人民带来了可怕的困难;乌克兰人和巴西人不得不使用稳定的外汇,囤积可以保值的有限资源,比如黄金。另一个著名的恶性通货膨胀的例子是20世纪20年代的德国,当时政府采取了刺激措施,比如印刷钞票来支付一战的费用。与此同时,德国被要求支付1320亿马克的战争赔款。这导致了经济活动的崩溃和短缺。由于钱太多而没有足够的商品和服务,价格每3天就翻一番!当时的德国货币纸唛贬值太多,以至于人们用它来代替柴火取暖。 The effects of hyperinflation were so severe that many people lived in poverty or fled the country.

虽然恶性通货膨胀会给经济带来巨大的困难,但年复一年保持适度的通货膨胀水平被认为是健康的。因为钱在未来会贬值,消费者有消费而不是存钱的动机,而这种动机在确保健康的经济中起着关键作用。

通货紧缩

通胀并不完全是好是坏取决于它是温和还是严重,而通货紧缩,通胀的反面,在任何经济体中都是不受欢迎的。通货紧缩的定义是商品和服务价格的普遍下降。在这种情况下,消费者没有消费的动机,因为他们的钱预计在未来有更多的购买力。这给经济踩了刹车,甚至可能逆转本应呈上升趋势的趋势。大萧条伴随着所谓的通货紧缩螺旋。通货紧缩螺旋背后的理论是,随着商品和服务价格的下降,利润就会减少。利润越少,支出就越少。这反过来又导致商品和服务的价格更低,形成了一个极难恢复的负面循环。

为什么通货膨胀发生呢?

宏观经济理论试图解释通货膨胀为什么会发生以及如何最好地调控它。凯恩斯经济学认为,当商品和服务的供求出现巨大的不平衡时,就会发生大规模的通货膨胀或通货紧缩。凯恩斯经济学在20世纪的大部分时间里都是发达国家的标准经济模型,如今仍被广泛使用。

货币主义者

一群经济学家(由米尔顿弗里德曼领导)命名的货币主义者认为,货币供应是通货膨胀的主要球员,而不是市场。例如,美联储(美国中央银行)可以打印更多的资金来增加供应或出售国库券以减少它。公共机构通过货币政策稳定各自的货币在稳定各自的货币方面发挥着重要作用。他们的理想是基于金钱数量理论,这使得货币供应变化将改变货币的价值。交换等式最佳说明:

MV = PY

地点:
货币供应量
V =货币流通速度,定义为一单位货币每年转移的次数
价格水平
Y =商品和服务的经济产出

在交换式中,总支出(MV)等于总销售收入(PY)。经济学家通常认为V和Y是常数;一种货币一年的交易数量和总经济产出的波动性肯定小于货币供应或价格水平。假设V和Y相对不变,剩下的就是M和P,这就产生了货币数量理论,即货币供应量与货币价值成正比。

在现实中,凯恩斯主义和货币主义政策被混合使用。尽管凯恩斯主义者和货币主义者有各自的分歧,但他们确实承认有反对的必要。例如,凯恩斯主义者并没有完全忽视货币供应在经济体中的作用,正如货币主义者也没有完全忽视通过操纵商品和服务的需求来解决通胀问题一样。

通货膨胀是如何计算的?

在美国,劳工部(Department of Labor)负责每年计算通货膨胀率。通常,市场上的一篮子商品和服务被放在一起,并在不同时期对与它们相关的成本进行比较。然后用各种公式对这些数字进行平均和加权,最终在美国得到的是一个被称为消费者价格指数(CPI)的数字。

例如,要找到2016年1月至2017年1月的通胀,首先要查看这两个月的CPI。历史CPI数据可以在上面找到美国劳工统计局网站:

2016年1月:236.916
2017年1月:242.839

计算的区别:

242.839 - 236.916 = 5.923

计算这一差额与前CPI的比率:

5.923
236.916
= 2.5%

2016年1月至2017年1月的通货膨胀为2.5%。当前期间的CPI大于后者时,结果是通货紧缩而不是通货膨胀。

衡量通货膨胀的问题

虽然上面给出的计算CPI的例子可能将通胀描述为一个简单的过程,但在现实世界中,衡量货币的真实通胀可能相当困难。

如何战胜通货膨胀?

通货膨胀对持有大量闲置流动现金的人影响最大。按照2.5%的通货膨胀率计算,一个50,000美元的支票账户(无利息)到这个期间结束时将会造成实际价值1,250美元的损失。我们可以看到,为了保护货币不受通货膨胀的影响,无论是温和的还是严重的通货膨胀,通常最好的办法是做些什么,而不是把钱存到没有利息的地方。通货膨胀是为什么金融大师兜售的传统建议不是存钱而是消费或投资的主要原因。在一个温和通胀成为常态的世界里,除了消费、投资或愿意接受通胀带来的一定程度的损失外,别无选择。

不幸的是,通胀没有完美的对冲手段。人们购买房地产、股票、基金、商品、TIPS、艺术品、古董和其他资产以对冲通货膨胀是很常见的。所有这些投资选择都有利有弊。投资者通常持有一种以上的资产来管理风险。大宗商品和TIPS之所以被讨论得更多,是因为它们与通胀密切相关。然而,它们未必是对冲通胀的最佳投资工具。

大宗商品

投资大宗商品,包括黄金、白银、石油、铜和许多原材料或农产品,是人们保护自己免受通胀影响的一种流行方式,因为大宗商品具有内在价值。此外,在高通胀时期,随着货币贬值,对商品的需求会增加商品的价值。几个世纪以来,黄金一直被传统地视为一种有效的资源,人们可以用它来对冲通胀,因为它是一种价值有限的资源,可以很容易地储存起来。虽然其他贵金属可以用来对冲通胀,但黄金是最受欢迎的。

提示

在美国,有一种金融工具被称为TIPS,即财政部通货膨胀保值证券。这些债券是由美国财政部发行的,专门为抵御通货膨胀提供保护。由于通货膨胀保值债券的本金与通货膨胀成正比,通货膨胀保值债券可以通过CPI等指数来衡量,因此可以作为一种相对有效的对冲高通胀时期的工具。它们通常只占人们投资组合的很小一部分,但任何寻求额外保护的人都可以选择在投资组合中为TIPS分配更多空间。由于它们基本上与股票无关,而股票通常是投资组合的主要组成部分,因此它们对于分散投资也很有帮助。与其他债券不同的是,TIPS的成熟期也可以延长,以获得期限溢价,而不存在通胀风险。其他国家也提供类似的通胀指数债券,如英国的指数挂钩金边债券、墨西哥的Udibonos或德国的德国国债指数。

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